Historia General de Japon IV, 2do semestre, 1998/99


Docentes: Michiko Tanaka

Tetsuro Kato

Tuesday 15:00-17:00 Room 2270

Wednesday 16:00-18:00 Room 2253

Thursday 11:00 -13:00  Room 2270

(up to June 4th) Friday 11:00-13:00   Room 2272


Segunda parte (Tetsuro Kato)

7-a Tema 5/ jueves 6 : Problems of Contemporary Japanese Histriography

<General Introduction>

(1) Japanese Long 19th Century (20th ?) in the World's Short 20th Century ?(Age of Extremes by E.Hobsbawm)

(2) Rupture or Continuence of Japanese 20th Century by the year of 1945?

(3)Prewar Koza-school vs. Rono-school debates, The 1940 System Theory, Total National Mobilization Theory, Imperialism without Strong Military Force

(4) Modernaization with pre-modern and post-modern : Loyalty and Flexibility

(5) Westernization, Americanization or Japanization? :Hybrid Culture(Shuichi Kato) or Multi-cultural Cohabitation (Masao Maruyama)?

(6) Shadow of America: The 1946 Constitution and the US-Japan Security Treaty ,

(7) Post-war Rapid Economic Growth: Fordist or Post-fordist Development?

(8) Guide by Bureaucracy or Japanese Management as the driving force of Economic Success

(9) Democracy without Democratization: The Long 1955 Status Quo ruled by the LDP

(10) A kind of "Socialism" or another type of "Capitalism" ?


[Main Texts]
*Wolferen, Karel Van, The Enigma of Japanese Power, Macmillan, 1988
*Gordon, Andrew ed., Postwar Japan as History, University of Californis Press, 1993
KATO's Internet HomepageURL: http://www.ff.iij4u.or.jp/~katote/Home.html)
[General References]
*Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Kodansha International
Arnason, Yohann, Social Theory and Japanese Experience, Kegen Paul International, 1997
*Gluck, Carol, Japan's Modern Myths, Princeton UP, 1985
*Gordon, Andrew, The Evolution of Labor Relations in Japan, Harvard UP, 1985
*Beasley, W.G., The Rise of Modern Japan, Charles Tuttle, 1990
*Tsurumi,Shunsuke, A Cultural History of Postwar Japan, Kegan Paul International1989
McCormak, Gavan & Yoshio Sugimoto eds., Modernization and Beyond, Cambridge UP, 1988



7-b. Tema 5/ jueves 7 de mayo "Japan in the 1930s"

*Garon, Sheldon, The State and Labor in Modern Japan, University of California Press, 1987, chap.5,6, Epilogue
*Hoston, G.A., Marxism and the Crisis of Development in Prewar Japan, Princeton UP, 1986

(1) Taisho Democracy

(2) Universal Male Suffrage 1925

(3) The Peace Presevation Law 1925

(4) The Showa Depression: Workers and Farmers

(5) The Manchurian Incident 1931, Puppet State Manchukuo 1932

(6) Marxist Debates on Japanese Capitalism: Koza-ha school vs. Rono-ha school

(7) February 26th Incident 1936, Sino-Japanese War 1937-45

(8) Proletarian Literature and Intelectualls


8. Tema 6/ miercoles 12 y jueves 13 (Amury Rep) de mayo "The Asian Pacific War"(1941-45)

Dower, John, War Without Mercy, Race and Power in the Pacific War, Pantheon Books,1986
*Maruyama, Masao, The Thought and Behavior in Modern Japanese Politics, Oxford UP,1969,chap.1-3.

(1) The Greater East Asian War? Pacific War? 15 Years War? Asian-Pacific War?

(2) The War as a Necessary Result of Emperor System or An Exceptional Episode?

(3) The Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany 1936 and Italy 1940

(4) Ultra-Nationalism: Military Dictatorship and the Emperor Hirohito

(5) The Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere

(6) From Pearl Harbor 1941 to Hiroshima 1945

(7) Cardial Principles of the National Entity of Japan 1937, The National General Mobilization Law 1938, The Imperial Rule Assistance Association 1940

(8) Warfare Economy: Zaibatsu and the the Industrial Patriotic Association

(9) Japanization of South East Asia, Conform Women, Korean workers and Okinawa

(10) "Yellow Apes" vs. "Brutal Demon" and the Atomic Bomb in Hiroshima


9. Tema 7/ viernes 14 y miercoles 19( Sylvia Rep) de mayo "Occupation "(1945-52)

*Livingston, Jon, Joe Moore & Felicia Oldfather eds., The Japan Reader: Postwar Japan 1945 to the Present, Pantheon Books, 1973, Part 1
Kerstten, Rikki, Democracy in Postwar Japan, Routledge, 1996

(1) "The Defeat of War" or "the End of War" ?

(2) The Allied Occupation, General MacArthor, Revolution from Above

(3) The New Democratric Constitution 1946: Article 9 Renunciation of War,

People's Sovereign Power, Fundamental Human Rights, Local Government

(4)The Symbolic Emperor System: From God to the Symbol of the State

(5) The Tokyo War Crime Trial, Occupation Purge

(6) Dissolution of Zaibatsu , Labour Reform, Land Reform, Female Franchise

(7) "Reverse Course": Late Occupation Period, Cold War, Red Purge

(8) "Apres guerre": Freedom of Thoughts, Speech, Press and Association


10. Tema 8/ jueves 20 y viernes 21(Jorge Rep) de mayo " The US-Japan Security Treaty"(1950s)

*Gordon, Andrew ed., Postwar Japan as History, University of California Press, 1993, Part 1
*Inoue, Kyoko, MacAuthur's Japanese Constitution, The University of Chicago Press,1991, chap.1-3
*Livingston, Jon, Joe Moore & Felicia Oldfather eds., The Japan Reader: Postwar Japan 1945 to the Present, Pantheon Books, 1973, Part 2
*Destler, I.M. et al, Managing an Alliance, Brooking Institution, 1976

(1) Chinese Revolution 1949 and Japan as an Anti-communist Fortress

(2) Korean War and Rearmament Debates (the Natinal Police Reserve 1950)

(3) The San Fransisco Peace Treaty with the US-Japan Security Treaty 1952

(4) The Self-Defence Force under the disarmed Constitution and the US-Nuclear Umbrella

(5) Remained Okinawa and the US Military Bases

(6) The 1960 Ampo Struggle (Anti-revision of the US-Japan Security Treaty )

(7) Postwar Democracy without Apology to the Asian People


11. Tema 9/ miercoles 26 y jueves 28(Oskar Rep) de mayo "High Economic Growth"(1955-73)

*Johnson, Charmers, MITI and the Japanese Miracle, Stanford UP, Stanford UP, 1982
*Okimoto, Daniel I, Between MITI and the Market, Stanford UP, 1989
*Dore, Ronald, British Factory- Japanese Factory, University of California Press, 1973

(1) Prime Minister Yoshida and the Japanese Conservative Liberalism

(2) Economic Recovery with Planning (the Priority Production Program) and the US Aids (the Dodge Line 1948, $1=360 Yen-rate)

(3) Special Military Procurement Demands by the Korean War

(4)"The End of Postwar Period?": GNP 1955 over the highest stage of Prewar Economy

(5) Industry Policy: MITI's Initiative of Trade and Investments

(6) Two Stages of Development : Before and After 1964-65 Recession (catch up to Germany 1968)

(8) Corporations: Enterprise Groups, Dual Structure, Japanese Management

(9) Lifetime Employment, Seniority System, Enterprise Unionism

(10)Technical Innovation with "Team Spirit"?

(11) Shadow of the Rapid Growth: Economic Animal into Asia, Long Working Hours, Company-centered Society, Environmental Pollution ("Minamata Disease")


12. Tema 10/ viernes 27 de mayo y miercoles 3 (Andriana Rep) de junio "Social Changes as a Passive Revolution"(1955-73)

*Havens, T.R., Fire Across the Sea: The Vietnam War and Japan, Princeton UP
*Gordon, Andrew ed., Postwar Japan as History, University of California Press, 1993, Part 2-3


(1) Urbanization: Labor Forces from Rural Areas, Decline of Agriculture

(2) Postwar Educational System: from moral to knowledge education

(3) New Life Movement: Modernization and Rationalization of Workplace and Family Life

(4) Increased Income and Distribution: Labour Movement and its "Spring Struggle"

(5) Mass Consumption Boom and Electric Appliances at Home: "Domestic Democratization?"

(6) Nutritious and Physical Improvement: Higher Children than Parents

(7) New Modern Family: Housing Complex, Supermarket, Table and TV Life

(8) From Arranged Marriage to Love Marriage, Growth of Nuclear Family

(9)High Career Society: Deviation (HENSACHI) and Cram School (JUKU)

(10)"Children who do not know the War" : Vietnam War and Cultural Changes


13. Tema 11/ jueves 2 y viernes 4 ( Juan Rep on US Japanology) de junio "Interest Politics in Japan"(1960s-70s)

Pempel, T.J. ed., Policymaking in Contemporary Japan, Cornell UP, 1977
Pempel, T.J., Policy and Politics in Japan: Creative Conservatism, Temple UP,1982
Pempel, T.J., Uncommon Democracy, Cornell UP,1990, chap.4,7,9

(1) The 1955 Status Quo: The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) with Business Organizations vs. the Japan Socialist Party (JSP) with Trade Unions

(2)The Constituon as a ideological issue: the US-Japan Security Treaty vs. Constitution, The Article 9 vs. the Self Defence Force, A Western Member vs. Soviet-China Friendship

(3)From Kishi's "Ampo" to Ikeda's "Income-Doubling Plan" 1960: From Ideological Politics to Interest (distibutive) Politics

(4) Junior Partner of the US: Korea-Japan Treaty1965, Chinese Cultural Revolution and the Vietnam War

(5) Multi-Party System?: Democratic Socialist Party, Clean Party, Communist Party

(6) US-Dependent Capitalism (JCP) vs. Independent Monopol Capitalism(JSP) Debates

(7) Student Revolts without Feminism: "The Year of 1968" in Japanese Style

(8) Okinawa 's Return bargained by the Textile Trade Friction with US

(9) Urbanization and New Middle Class: Grassroots Civic Movements and Local Progressive Governments :(Welfare and Environment as Political Issues )

(10) Tanaka Kakuei's Glory and Degradation : Normalization of relation with China and the Lockheed's Scandal


14. Tema 12/ miercoles 8 y jueves 9 (Oskar Rep) de junio "Oil Crisis and Globalization"(1970s)

Kato, Tetsuro, The Political Economy of Japanese KAROSHI(Death from Overwork), Hitotsubashi Journal of Social Studies, Vol.26, No.2, December 1994.
Kato, Tetsuro, Workaholism---It's not in the Blood, Look Japan, February 1995
*Krauss,Ellis S, Thomas P.Rohlen & Patricia G.Steinhof eds., Conflict in Japan, University of Hawaii Press, 1984

(1) The End of Miraculous Growth : the First Oil Schock and "Stable Growth"

(2) Slimed (Cut-down) Management and Flooding Exports of TV, Video, Cars etc.

(3) Beginning of the Long Winter of Japanese Labour Movements and the Establishment of Company -centered Society with Karoshi (Death from Overwork)

(4) Collective(?) Competition as the Keyword : Trade, Market, Industry, Corporation, Workplace, Loyalty to the Boss, Local Life, Housing, University, Schools, Private Cars, Brand Goods etc.

(5) Individualistic Conservatism: "Economic Steering by LDP to keep Private Life"

(6) Asian NIEs and the "New Japanese Imperialism" in the World Capitalist System :

Japanese TNCs in Asia, Only One Asian Country in the Summit Meeting from 1975


15. Tema 13/ viernes 10y miercoles 15 (Coral Rep) de junio "Okinawa, Gender and Non-Japanese"(1950s-80s)

*Gordon, Andrew ed., Postwar Japan as History, University of California Press, 1993, Part 4
*Hook, Glenn D., Militarization and Demilitarization in Contemporary Japan, Routledge, 1996

(1) Okinawa (Southern Islands) as A Domestic Colony : Historical Background, Military Victim of Japanese Majority, Economic Dependency on the US-Bases

(2) Ainu People in Hokkaido(North) : Minority and the Assimilation, Unique Culture

(3) Japanese Nationalism : From Isolated Islands?, Imperial Tradition, or Collectivism?

(4) Women in Japanese History: Pre-modern Patriarchy? By the Male-dominating Company? Role of Housewives in Politics, Japanese Women's Liberation Movements

(5) Discrimination at School and Workplace, M-curve workforce, Equal Employment Opportunity Law since 1986, "Sexual Harassment" as A Popular Word

(6) Foreigners ="GAIJIN(out of Japanese)", Japanese Korean, Asian and South-American Foreign Workers of "Three K"(hard, dirty, risky manual works), Foreign Students

(7) "Society" from foreign translation vs. "SEKEN" (a kind of closed interdependent community and communication unit) in Japanese Tradition


16. Tema 14/ jueves 16 y viernes 17 ( Sylvia Rep on Wolfren) de junio "Japan as Number One and Bubble Economy" (1980s)

Kato, Tetsuro, Is Japanese Capitalism Post-Fordist?(with Rob Steven), in J.P.Arnason and Yoshio Sugimoto eds, Japanese Encounters With Postmodernity, Kegen Paul International, 1995.
*Wolferen, Karel Van, The Enigma of Japanese Power, Macmillan, 1988

(1) Changing Evaluations of Japanese History by the American "Japanologists" (R. Benedict, E.H. Norman vs E. Reischauer's Modernaization Theory, "Japan Inc.", "Asian Giant", "Japan as Number One", " Chrysanthemum" school (E. Vogel etc.) vs."Hawkish" School (C.Johnson, K.V.Wolferen etc.)

(2) Japanese Economic Success by "Universal" or "Uniquely Unique" System?

(3) Cultural Explanation vs. Social Scientiific Approach?

(4) Collectivism, Relationalism, or Isolated Selfism with Information Sharing?

(5) From Mass Production-Consumption to Limited Varied Production-Consumption?

(6) "Pre-Fordism", "Ultra-Fordism" or "Post-Fordism?" , or "After-Fordism"?

(7) What are the Elements of "Japanese System"? "Flexibility" for whom?

(8) Is Japanese System transplantable?

(9) Are Japanese People Satisfied with the System?

(10) John Dower's "Five Flaws of Japanese Society": wealth without pleasure, equality without freedom, high level education without originality, Familyism without father, economic superpower without political leadership


17. Tema 15/ miercoles 22 y jueves 23 ( Juan Rep) de junio "Restructuring Japan"(1990s)

*Kato, Tetsuro, Japanese Perceptions of the 1989 Eastern European Revolution, in Ian Neary ed.,War, Revolution and Japan, Japan Library, Sandgate 1993.
*Dower, John, Japan in War & Peace, New Press 1993

(1) Bubble Economy and the Results: Land Price, Stockmarket, Financial Bankruptcy, Unemployment, Minus Growth

(2) Campany-centered Society with Slimed Welfare State in Global World Market

(3) The 1980's Neo-Liberalism: Nakasone's Administrative Reform and Privatization, Consumption Tax, Recruit Scandal and the End of Cold War

(4) Plaza Hotel Agreement on the High Yen-Rate, The US-Japan Economic Frictions, Structural Negosiation, De-regulation, Chinese Market, Asian Recession

(5) Reduction of the "Affulent" Life: Decrease of Working Hours by the Reduction of Overtime Payment, Enough Goods in Small Housing, Boom of 100 Yen Shops,

(6) Stressful Workplace under the Recession: "Restructuring" "Overwork Suicide"

(7) Social Diseases: Collapse of Classroom at School, New Religions lihe Oumu, Young Crimes, Loss of Diligence,

(8) Rapidly Aging Society, Nuclear Family with 1.3 children, Neo-nationalism, Environmental Problems, Globalization without Cosmopolitan Citizenship

(9) Political Rearrangement: Party System, Election, Politician-Bureaucrat Relationship

(10) Unstable Us-Japan Relations, Small but still Strong Government


18. Tema 16/ viernes 24 "Japan in the 21st Century"(Summary)

McCormack, Gavan, The Emptiness of Japanese Affluence, M.E.Scharpe, 1996
Gordon, Andrew, The Wages of Affluence, Harvard UP,1998